Essays / Papers on Impact Factor

By  Eugene Garfield : 

Garfield E, "Whither Journals and Impact Factors?" Foreword - Impact Factor of Scientific and Scholarly Journals. Its Use and Misuse in Research Evaluation.  Scientometrics Guidebooks Series - Volume 2, p.v-vi.  T. Braun Editor, pp.699, Publisher:Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, August 2007

Garfield, E. "The History and Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor" Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA),
(293): 90-93, January 2006. (Abridged version.  For full text paper go to )

Garfield, E. "The Agony and the Ecstasy - The History and the Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor"
Presented at the International Congress on Peer Review and Biomedical Publication, Chicago, U.S.A. September 16, 2005.

Garfield, E. "Which medical journals have the greatest impact?"
Annals of Internal Medicine 105(2):313-20, 1986.
(Reprinted in Current Contents #2, p.3, January 12, 1987)

Garfield, E. "Why are the impacts of the leading medical journals so similar and yet so different?
Item-by-item audits reveal a diversity of editorial material"
Current Contents, #2, p.3, January 12, 1987
This is a short introduction to the following reprint in Current Contents:
Garfield, E. "Which medical journals have the greatest impact?"
Annals of Internal Medicine 105(2):313-20, 1986.

Garfield, E. " How can impact factors be improved? "
British Medical Journal, 313 (7054) p.411-413, 1996.

Garfield, E. "Journal impact factor: a brief review"
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 161(8), p.979-80, 1999.

Garfield, E. "Long-Term vs. Short-Term Journal Impact: Does it matter?"
The Scientist, Vol:12(3), p.10, February 2, 1998

Garfield, E. "Long-Term vs Short-Term Impact: Part II. Cumulative Impact Factors"
The Scientist, Vol:12(14), p.12, July 6, 1998.

Garfield, E. "Impact factors,  and why they won't go away"
Nature 411,  p. 522, May 31, 2001.
(Letter - In response to Brunstein "End of Impact Factors?" Nature 403, 478, 2000)

Garfield, E. "The use of JCR and JPI in measuring short- and long-term journal impact "
Presented at Council of Scientific Editors Annual Meeting,  May 9, 2000

See also :
Garfield, E. "Use of Journal Citation Reports and Journal Performance Indicators in measuring short and long term journal impact"
Croatian Medical Journal,  41: (4) 368-374 December  2000.
Adapted from the presentation at Council of Scientific Editors' Annual Meeting, May 9, 2000.

Garfield, E. "Refining the Computation of Topic Based Impact Factors : Some Suggestions"
Occupational Medicine (Oxford) 49:(8) 571,  November 1999.
(Letter - In  response to Takahashi K, Aw TC, Koh D, An alternative to journal-based impact factors (letter). Occup. Med. 1999; 49:57-58.

Garfield, E. "The Impact Factor and using it correctly"
 Der Unfallchirurg, 101(6), p.413, June 1998 English Translation
(Letter - In response to Oestern HJ, Probst J "Application of the impact factor as a measurement of scientific output - Decision of the Presidum of the German Society for Emergency Surgery, June 21, 1997" Anaesthesist 46 (10): 909-909 October  1997.
Oestern HJ, Probst J "Use of the impact factor as a criterion of scientific achievement. Resolution of the executive committee of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Unfallchirurgie, 21 June 1997" UNFALLCHIRURG 100 (10): 838-838 October 1997.)

Garfield, E. "Dispelling a few common myths about Journal Citation Impacts"
The Scientist,Vol.11(3),p.11, February 3, 1997

Garfield, E. "The Impact of Cumulative Impact Factors"
Proceedings of the 8th IFSE Conference, Barcelona, 1995, p.58-81.
Presented at the Eighth International Conference of the International Federation of Science Editors,
Barcelona, Spain. July 9-13, 1995. Talk partially based on : "Impressions of Spanish Research Output as seen
in the ISI Science Indicators Report." July 1995.

Garfield, E. "Prestige versus Impact: Established images of journals, like institutions are resistant to change"
Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol:10, p.263-264, 1987
Introduction to:

Christenson JA, Sigelman L. "Accrediting knowledge: Journal stature and citation impact in social science"
Social  Science Quarterly, Vol, 66, No, 4, December  1985

Garfield, E. "Which journals attract the most frequently cited articles? Here's a list of the top fifteen."
Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol:1, p.485, 1962-73.

Use of Journal Impact  factors and citation analysis for evaluation of science
Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Council of Biology Editors, Salt Lake City, UT,
May 4, 1998 - April 17, 1998

The Use of Journal Impact Factors and Citation Analysis For Evaluation of Science -
Presented in Oslo, April 17, 1998

By  Other Authors :

Stegmann J  "Building a list of journals with constructed impact factors" J DOC 55 (3): 310-324 JUN 1999

Stegmann J  "How to evaluate journal impact factors " Nature 390 (6660): 550-550 DEC 11 1997 

August 2011